Case studies


 

The methodology is based on a four steps analysis approach that has to be applied:

 

  1. Mapping the needs - commodities that the local community demands, not only energy (electricity, heat, cold, transport fuel, etc.), but also all other types of commodities (or utilities in the old command jargon), like water, waste treatment, wastewater treatment, etc., that might or might not depend on energy supply.
  2.  

  3. Mapping the resources - locally available ones, like wind, sun, geothermal energy, ocean energy, hydro potential, water resources, but also imported ones like grid electricity, piped or shipped natural gas, oil derivatives or oil, water shipped, the potential to dump waste and wastewater, etc.
  4.  

  5. Devising scenarios with technologies that can use available resources to cover the needs - commercial energy conversion technologies, like thermal, hydro and wind electricity generation or solar thermal water heating, commercial water, waste and wastewater treatment technologies including desalination, or emerging technologies, like geothermal energy usage, solar electricity conversion systems, or technologies in development, like fuel cells, wave energy, etc.
  6.  

  7. Modelling the scenarios - to satisfy one or several needs, by using available resources, and satisfying preset criteria. Due to global warming and falling reserves, and sometimes security of supply problems, fossil fuels should generally be used as the option of last resort in setting scenarios, even though they will often provide the most economically viable solution with the current price levels, and advantage should be given to locally available renewable resources.

 

 

Methodology

 

Figure 1. Sustainable community, its needs and its resources

 

The H2RES model was tested on the power systems of:

 

 

 

Read more on www.sciencedirect.com in articles:

 

1. Hydrogen as an energy vector in the islands' energy supply, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 33, Issue 4, February 2008, Pages 1091-1103

2. H2RES, Energy planning tool for island energy systems - The case of the Island of Mljet, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 34, Issue 16, August 2009, Pages 7015-7026

3. Energy Scenarios for Malta, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 33, Issue 16, August 2008, Pages 4235-4246

4. Two energy system analysis models: A comparison of methodologies and results, Energy, Volume 32, Issue 6, June 2007, Pages 948-954

5. Increasing renewable energy sources in island energy supply: case study Porto Santo, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 8, Issue 4, August 2004, Pages 383-399

6. RenewIslands methodology for sustainable energy and resource planning for islands, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 12, Issue 4, May 2008, Pages 1032-1062