Case studies



NAME: Republic of Malta
LOCATION: Mediterranean Sea

35 50' N and 14 35' E

AREA: 246 km2
Low hills, terraced slopes and plains, coastal cliffs. There are no mountains or rivers.
Mediterranean, with moist, mild winters and dry, hot summers.

Isolated, 571 MW, power is generated in two power stations - Marsa Power station and Delimara Power station.

Peak demand in winter is during the evening and is therefore predominantly domestic. In summer the peak demand occurs during the morning and therefore predominantly commercial and industrial. The overall yearly peak occurs in summer.


Malta Load


Figure 1. Winter and summer yearly peaks


Projections as to future load growth are based on extrapolations of electricity demand from historic data over the base period 2000-2004. This study load projection uses a ''trend method'' technique. In this method, the variable to be predicted is purely expressed as a function of time.


Malta projections


Figure 2. Load projections (2002-2025)


It was decided to model the system with two growth rates, one for the summer period and one for the rest of the year. The yearly load growth rate demand for the coming 10-year period was set to be 6.5% for the summer period whilst that for the rest of the year was set to be 3.73%. Thus the overall annual average works out to 4.4%. In order to assess RE scenarios in Malta, it was necessary to analyse the wind and solar energy potential.





Business as usual scenario is a situation guided by existing local government policies in which no change in current generation technology is used. This involves the analysis of the investment and upgrading necessary in order to cater for the load demand up to year 2025. This analysis assumes an N-1 situation in which it is assumed that at any time there will be one generating block, equivalent to the biggest block, either in maintenance or stand by mode.


Fossil fuel and low level penetration of wind and solar scenario. A low and practical level of renewable penetration, apart from fulfilling Malta's EU Directive on the promotion of energy produced from RE sources, also implies that there will be no excess energy produced. All wind energy produced will be supplied to grid with no storage necessities. This scenario will try to meet the 5% target of electricity produced from RE sources set in the Accession Treaty of the EU Directive on the promotion of electricity from RES. A 30% instantaneous penetration of intermittent renewables were used


Fossil fuel, RE and hydrogen storage scenario for the transport sector. This is a scenario introducing a hydrogen load to be used by road transport. This is produced from wind and solar sources satisfying a 5% transport energy demand in 2015. RE will be directly converted to hydrogen in order to cover the necessary load to be used for transport. Excess intermittent energy is supplied to grid via fuel cells provided a certain security of supply is reached.